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java多线程对CountDownLatch的使用实例 - jihite

博客园_jihite 38 阅读
 

介绍

CountDownLatch是一个同步辅助类,它允许一个或多个线程一直等待直到其他线程执行完毕才开始执行。

用给定的 计数 初始化CountDownLatch,其含义是要被等待执行完的线程个数。

每次调用CountDown(), 计数 减1

主程序执行到await()函数会阻塞等待线程的执行,直到计数为0

实现原理

计数器通过使用锁(共享锁、排它锁)实现

实例1

场景:模拟10人赛跑。10人跑完后才喊"Game Over."

package com.jihite;
import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

public class CountDownLatchTest {
    private static final int RUNNER_COUNT = 10;
    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        final CountDownLatch begin = new CountDownLatch(1);
        final CountDownLatch end = new CountDownLatch(RUNNER_COUNT);
        final ExecutorService exec = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(10);

        for (int i = 0; i < RUNNER_COUNT; i++) {
            final int NO = i + 1;
            Runnable run = new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        begin.await();
                        Thread.sleep((long)(Math.random() * 10000));
                        System.out.println("No." + NO + " arrived");
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    } finally {
                        end.countDown();
                    }
                }
            };
            exec.submit(run);
        }

        System.out.println("Game Start ...");
        begin.countDown();
        end.await();
//        end.await(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
        System.out.println("Game Over.");

        exec.shutdown();
    }
}

分析:代码中定义了2个计数器,个数分别为1和10。

如果不执行begin.countDown(),进程会一致阻塞在begin.await()

主进程执行到end.awit()阻塞等待end计数器清0,进程中每执行一次CountDown()减1,所有执行完后主进程继续往下执行

输出

Game Start ...
No.6 arrived
No.4 arrived
No.10 arrived
No.3 arrived
No.9 arrived
No.5 arrived
No.8 arrived
No.7 arrived
No.1 arrived
No.2 arrived
Game Over.

注:countDown()一定要执行到(考虑异常及线程与开始计数设置不一致),否则会一直卡在await()(可以设置时间,超过一定时间就不等了)

实例2(和join的相似处)

场景:流水线上有3个worker: worker1、worker2、worker3,只有当worker1和worker2执行完时才可以执行worker3

WorkerCount.java

package com.jihite;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;

public class WorkerCount extends Thread {
    private String name;
    private long time;
    private CountDownLatch countDownLatch;

    public WorkerCount(String name, long time, CountDownLatch countDownLatch) {
        this.name = name;
        this.time = time;
        this.countDownLatch = countDownLatch;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        try {
            System.out.println(name + "开始工作");
            Thread.sleep(time);
            System.out.println(name + "工作完成, 耗时:"+ time);
            countDownLatch.countDown();
            System.out.println("countDownLatch.getCount():" + countDownLatch.getCount());
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

CountDownLatch实现:

    @Test
    public void CountDownLatchTest() throws InterruptedException {
        int COUNT = 2;
        final CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(COUNT);
        WorkerCount worker0 = new WorkerCount("lilei-0", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        WorkerCount worker1 = new WorkerCount("lilei-1", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        worker0.start();
        worker1.start();
        countDownLatch.await();
        System.out.println("准备工作就绪");

        WorkerCount worker2 = new WorkerCount("lilei-2", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        worker2.start();
        Thread.sleep(10000);
    }

输出:

lilei-0开始工作
lilei-1开始工作
lilei-1工作完成, 耗时:4039
countDownLatch.getCount():1
lilei-0工作完成, 耗时:9933
countDownLatch.getCount():0
准备工作就绪
lilei-2开始工作
lilei-2工作完成, 耗时:6402
countDownLatch.getCount():0

该场景join也可以完成

Worker.java

package com.jihite;
public class Worker extends Thread{
    private String name;
    private long time;

    public Worker(String name, long time) {
        this.name = name;
        this.time = time;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        try {
            System.out.println(name + "开始工作");
            Thread.sleep(time);
            System.out.println(name + "工作完成, 耗时:"+ time);
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

join实现

 @Test
    public void JoinTest() throws InterruptedException {
        Worker worker0 = new Worker("lilei-0", (long)(Math.random() * 10000));
        Worker worker1 = new Worker("lilei-1", (long)(Math.random() * 10000));
        Worker worker2 = new Worker("lilei-2", (long)(Math.random() * 10000));
        worker0.start();
        worker1.start();

        worker0.join();
        worker1.join();
        System.out.println("准备工作就绪");

        worker2.start();
        Thread.sleep(10000);
    }

输出

lilei-0开始工作
lilei-1开始工作
lilei-1工作完成, 耗时:4483
lilei-0工作完成, 耗时:6301
准备工作就绪
lilei-2开始工作
lilei-2工作完成, 耗时:6126

既然这样,那CountDownLatch和join的区别在哪?通过下面的场景三就可以看出

实例3(和join的不同处)

场景:流水线上有3个worker: worker1、worker2、worker3,只有当worker1和worker2两者的阶段一都执行完后才可以执行worker3

WorkerCount2.java

package com.jihite;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;

public class WorkerCount2 extends Thread {
    private String name;
    private long time;
    private CountDownLatch countDownLatch;

    public WorkerCount2(String name, long time, CountDownLatch countDownLatch) {
        this.name = name;
        this.time = time;
        this.countDownLatch = countDownLatch;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        try {
            System.out.println(name + "开始阶段1工作");
            Thread.sleep(time);
            System.out.println(name + "阶段1完成, 耗时:"+ time);
            countDownLatch.countDown();

            System.out.println(name + "开始阶段2工作");
            Thread.sleep(time);
            System.out.println(name + "阶段2完成, 耗时:"+ time);

        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

此时用join无法实现,只能用CountDownLatch

 @Test
    public void CountDownLatchTest2() throws InterruptedException {
        int COUNT = 2;
        final CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(COUNT);
        WorkerCount2 worker0 = new WorkerCount2("lilei-0", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        WorkerCount2 worker1 = new WorkerCount2("lilei-1", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        worker0.start();
        worker1.start();
        countDownLatch.await();
        System.out.println("准备工作就绪");

        WorkerCount2 worker2 = new WorkerCount2("lilei-2", (long)(Math.random() * 10000), countDownLatch);
        worker2.start();
        Thread.sleep(10000);
    }

输出

lilei-0开始阶段1工作
lilei-1开始阶段1工作
lilei-0阶段1完成, 耗时:3938
lilei-0开始阶段2工作
lilei-1阶段1完成, 耗时:6259
lilei-1开始阶段2工作
准备工作就绪
lilei-2开始阶段1工作
lilei-0阶段2完成, 耗时:3938
lilei-1阶段2完成, 耗时:6259
lilei-2阶段1完成, 耗时:7775
lilei-2开始阶段2工作
 
作者:博客园_jihite
真正的稳定,源于内心的强大和能力的充实 真正的立身之本是当下的自己 现在的想法和行动将决定10年后的自己
原文地址:java多线程对CountDownLatch的使用实例 - jihite, 感谢原作者分享。

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